The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), known as CERN ( //; French pronunciation: [sɛʁn]; see History), is an international organization whose purpose is to operate the world's largest particle physics laboratory, which is situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border ( ). Established in 1954, the organization has twenty European member states.
The term CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory itself, which employs just under 2400 full-time employees/workers, as well as some 7931 scientists and engineers representing 608 universities and research facilities and 113 nationalities.
CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. It is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer centre containing very powerful data-processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis and, because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been a major wide area networking hub.
The CERN sites, as an international facility, are officially under neither Swiss nor French jurisdiction. Member states' contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totaledCHF 1 billion (approximately € 664 million).
The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.a[›] The acronym CERN originally stood, in French, forConseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said that the acronym could "still be CERN even if the name is [not]".
Soon after its establishment the work at the laboratory went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus into higher-energy physics, which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between particles. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics(Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the research being performed at CERN.
Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. They include:
- 1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber.
- 1983: The discovery of W and Z bosons in the UA1 and UA2 experiments.
- 1989: The determination of the number of light neutrino families at the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) operating on the Z boson peak.
- 1995: The first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment.
- 1999: The discovery of direct CP-violation in the NA48 experiment.
- 2010: The isolation of 38 atoms of anti-hydrogen
- 2011: Maintaining anti-hydrogen for over 15 minutes
The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber."
The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.
Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.
Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be found at CERN.ch.
More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of grid computing, hosting among others the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid projects. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main Internet Exchange Points in Switzerland.
CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:
- Two linear accelerators generate low energy particles. Linac2 accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), and Linac3 provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/u for injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR).
- The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators.
- The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR).
- The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built in 1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS.
- The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments (currently COMPASS and NA62), it has been operated as a proton–antiproton collider (the SppS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP). Since 2008, it has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
- The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.
- REX-ISOLDE increases the charge states of ions coming from the ISOLDE targets, and accelerates them to a maximum energy of 3 MeV/u.
- The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed of light for research into antimatter.
- The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility, which studies feasibility issues for the future normal conducting linear collider project.
The Large Hadron Collider
Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards operating the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.
The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva airport and the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC.
Seven experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) will run on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions from a different point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, a special crane had to be rented from Belgium in order to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.
This accelerator has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialised grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB/s before 2008.
The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008. The first attempt to circulate a beam through the entire LHC was at 8:28 GMT on 10 September 2008, but the system failed because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008.
The LHC resumed its operation on Friday the 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 trillion electron volts. The challenge that the engineers then faced was to try and line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to the LHC's main engineer Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology at the Swiss laboratory.
At 1200 BST on Tuesday 30 March 2010 the LHC successfully smashed two proton particle beams travelling with 3.5 TeV (trillion electron volts) of energy, resulting in a 7 TeV event. However this is just the start of a long road toward the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. This is mainly because the amount of data produced is so huge it could take up to 24 months to completely analyse it all. At the end of the 7 TeV experimental period, the LHC will be shut down for maintenance for up to a year, with the main purpose of this shut down being to strengthen the huge magnets inside the accelerator. When it re-opens, it will attempt to create 14 TeV events.
- The original linear accelerator (LINAC 1).
- The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC) which started operation in 1957 and was shut down in 1991.
- The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), an early collider built from 1966 to 1971 and operated until 1984.
- The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP), which operated from 1989 to 2000 and was the largest machine of its kind, housed in a 27 km-long circular tunnel which now houses the Large Hadron Collider.
- The Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), commissioned in 1982, which assembled the first pieces of true antimatter, in 1995, consisting of nine atoms of antihydrogen. It was closed in 1996, and superseded by the Antiproton Decelerator.
The smaller accelerators are located on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and so there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones. There are six entrances to the Meyrin site:
- A, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
- B, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at all times. Often referred to as the main entrance.
- C, in Switzerland. Open for all CERN personnel at specific times.
- D, in Switzerland. Open for goods reception at specific times.
- E, in France. Open for French-resident CERN personnel at specific times. Controlled by customs personnel. Named "Porte Charles de Gaulle" in recognition of his role in the creation of the CERN.
- Tunnel entrance, in France. Open for equipment transfer to and from CERN sites in France by personnel with a specific permit. This is the only permitted route for such transfers. Under the CERN treaty, no taxes are payable when such transfers are made. Controlled by customs personnel.
The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are located underground almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments themselves are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.
Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments).
Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.
Financing (Budget 2009)
|Member state||Contribution||Mil. CHF||Mil. EUR|
|United Kingdom||14.70 %||161.6||106.5|
|Czech Republic||1.15 %||12.7||8.4|
Exchange rates: 1 CHF = 0,829 EUR (19 Sep 2011)
The original twelve (12) CERN signatories from 1954 were:
- Germany (at first only West Germany)
- United Kingdom
- Yugoslavia (later withdrawn).
All founding members have so far (as of 2008) remained in the CERN organisation, except Yugoslavia which left in 1961 and never re-joined.
Since its foundation, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organisation continuously since their acceptance, except Spain which joined in 1961, withdrew eight years later, and joined anew in 1983. CERN's membership history is as follows:
- Austria joined in 1959, bringing the total number of members to 13.
- Yugoslavia left in 1961 (12 members)
- Spain joined in 1961 (thus increasing the number of member states to 13 again), left in 1969 (12 members), rejoined in 1983 (13 members)
- Portugal joined in 1985 (14 member states)
- Finland joined in 1991
- Poland joined in 1991 (together with Finland bringing the number of participating member states to 16)
- Hungary joined in 1992 (17 members)
- Czech Republic joined in 1993
- Slovakia joined in 1993 (together with Czech Republic increasing the total members to 19)
- Bulgaria joined in 1999 (20 member states)
- Israel joined in 2011 (21 member states)
There are currently twenty-one (21) member countries, 18 of which are also European Union member states.
- Romania became a candidate for accession to CERN in 2010 and will become a member country in 2015.
Five (5) countries applying for membership have all formally confirmed their wish to become members.
- Cyprus since 14 February 2006 Non-Member State status
- Serbia since 8 June 2001 Non-Member State status
- Slovenia since 7 January 1991 Non-Member State status
- Turkey since 1961 Observer State status
Six (6) countries have observer status:
- Turkey – since 1961
- Russia – since 1993
- Japan – since 1995
- United States – since 1997
- India – since 2002
Also observers are the following international organizations:
Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:
- Argentina – 11 March 1992
- Armenia – 25 March 1994
- Australia – 1 November 1991
- Azerbaijan – 3 December 1997
- Belarus – 28 June 1994
- Brazil – 19 February 1990 & October 2006
- Canada – 11 October 1996
- Chile – 10 October 1991
- People's Republic of China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004
- Colombia – 15 May 1993
- Croatia – 18 July 1991
- Cyprus – 14 February 2006
- Egypt – 16 January 2006
- Estonia – 23 April 1996
- Georgia – 11 October 1996
- Iceland – 11 September 1996
- Iran – 5 July 2001
- Lithuania – 9 November 2004
- Macedonia – 27 April 2009
- Mexico – 20 February 1998
- Montenegro – 12 October 1990
- Morocco – 14 April 1997
- New Zealand – 4 December 2003
- Pakistan – 1 November 1994. The possibility of Pakistan becoming an Observer State has been raised on various occasions.
- Peru – 23 February 1993
- Romania – 1 October 1991. Since 12 December 2008 it has the Status of Candidate for Accession to Membership.
- Saudi Arabia – 21 January 2006
- Serbia – 8 June 2001. In 2008 it applied for accession to CERN as a Member State. Since 19 December 2010 it has the Status of Candidate for Accession to Membership.
- Slovenia – 7 January 1991
- South Africa – 4 July 1992
- South Korea – 25 October 2006. It might become a candidate for CERN Observer Status in a few years.
- Republic of China (Taiwan)
- United Arab Emirates – 18 January 2006
- Ukraine – 2 April 1993
- Viet Nam
|Maps of the history of CERN membership|
Facilities at CERN open to the public include:
- The Globe of Science and Innovation, which opened in late 2005 and is used four times a week for special exhibits.
- The Microcosm museum on particle physics and CERN history.
- The Hindu deity, Shiva engaging in the Nataraja dance, parallelling the movements or “dance” of subatomic particles.
In popular culture
- CERN's Large Hadron Collider is the subject of a (scientifically accurate) rap video starring Katherine McAlpine with some of the facility's staff.
- CERN's is depicted in an episode of South Park (Season 13, Episode 6) called "Pinewood Derby". Randy Marsh, the father of one of the main characters, breaks into the "Hadron Particle Super Collider in Switzerland" and steals a "superconducting bending magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration" to use in his son Stan's Pinewood Derby racer. Randy breaks into CERN dressed in disguise as Princess Leia from the Star Wars saga. The break-in is captured on surveillance tape which is then broadcast on the news.
- CERN is depicted in the video game (later adapted into an anime series) Steins;Gate under the name SERN. In the video game, SERN is a shadowy organization that has been researching time travel and attempts to use it to restructure and control the world in the near future.
- Large Hadron Collider
- List of Directors General of CERN
- Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
- Science and technology in Switzerland
- SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
- ^ a b "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ The CERN Name, on the CERN website.
- ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "CERN.ch La". Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ Fanti, V.; et al. (1998). "A new measurement of direct CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon". Physics Letters B 465: 335.arXiv:hep-ex/9909022. Bibcode 1999PhLB..465..335F.doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01030-8.
- ^ "Antihydrogen isolation". CNN.
- ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13666892
- ^ "CERN.ch". Public.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "W3.org". W3.org. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "CERN.ch". CERN.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "CERN Website – LINAC". Linac2.home.cern.ch. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ CERN Courier, "MoEDAL becomes the LHC's magnificent seventh", 5 May 2010
- ^ Overbye, Dennis (29 July 2008). "Let the Proton Smashing Begin. (The Rap Is Already Written.)". The New York Times.
- ^ "CERN press release, 7 August 2008". Press.web.cern.ch. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "Red Carpet for CERN's 50th". CERN bulletin. November 2004.
- ^ Plaque #2196 on Open Plaques.
- ^ http://www.jpost.com/Sci-Tech/Article.aspx?id=238491
- ^ Andresen, G. B.; et al. (2010). "Trapped antihydrogen". Nature468 (7324): 673–6. Bibcode 2010Natur.468..673A.doi:10.1038/nature09610. PMID 21085118.
- ^ http://www.interactions.org/cms/?pid=1030850
- ^ "ISAAR relationship data at CERN library". Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- ^ "''Macedonia joins CERN (SUP)''". Mia.com.mk. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "Djelic to meet CERN Director General". Emportal.rs. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ BLIC.rs
- ^ http://www.fritjofcapra.net/shiva.html
- ^ "Youtube.com". Youtube. Retrieved 20 November 2010.
- ^ "Large Hadron Collider Rap Video Is a Hit", National Geographic News. 10 September 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- ^ "Southparkstudios.com". South Park Studios. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: CERN|
|Book: Large Hadron Collider|
|Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print.|
- Official website
- CERN at 50
- CERN Courier – International journal of high-energy physics
- CERN chronology